Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis
1 Fondazione Umberto Veronesi, p.zza Velasca 5, 20142, Milano, Italy
2 Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via A. Di Rudini 8, 20142, Milano, Italy
3 Nephrology Unit, San Raffaele Hospital, via Olgettina 60, Milano, Italy
4 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, via A. Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy
Journal of Translational Medicine 2013, 11:109 doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-109Published: 1 May 2013
Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis.
In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.