Open Access Review

Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

Elena Dogliotti12, Giuseppe Vezzoli3, Antonio Nouvenne4*, Tiziana Meschi4, Annalisa Terranegra2, Alessandra Mingione2, Caterina Brasacchio2, Benedetta Raspini2, Daniele Cusi2 and Laura Soldati2

Author Affiliations

1 Fondazione Umberto Veronesi, p.zza Velasca 5, 20142, Milano, Italy

2 Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via A. Di Rudini 8, 20142, Milano, Italy

3 Nephrology Unit, San Raffaele Hospital, via Olgettina 60, Milano, Italy

4 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, via A. Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy

For all author emails, please log on.

Journal of Translational Medicine 2013, 11:109  doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-109

Published: 1 May 2013

Abstract

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis.

In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

Keywords:
Nephrolithiasis; Nutrition; Calcium; Stones prevention