Open Access Research

Somatostatin-based radiotherapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in neuroendocrine tumors: long-term outcome of a phase I dose escalation study

Nicolas Marincek1, Ann-Catherine Jörg1, Philippe Brunner1, Christian Schindler2, Michael T Koller3, Christoph Rochlitz4, Jan Müller-Brand1, Helmut R Maecke5, Matthias Briel36 and Martin A Walter17*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, CH

2 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, CH

3 Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, CH

4 Department of Oncology, University Hospital Basel, CH

5 Division of Radiological Chemistry, University Hospital Basel, CH

6 Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, CA

7 Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA

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Journal of Translational Medicine 2013, 11:17  doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-17

Published: 15 January 2013

Abstract

Background

We describe the long-term outcome after clinical introduction and dose escalation of somatostatin receptor targeted therapy with [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors.

Methods

In a clinical phase I dose escalation study we treated patients with increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities. Multivariable Cox regression and competing risk regression were used to compare efficacy and toxicities of the different dosage protocols.

Results

Overall, 359 patients were recruited; 60 patients were enrolled for low dose (median: 2.4 GBq/cycle, range 0.9-7.8 GBq/cycle), 77 patients were enrolled for intermediate dose (median: 3.3 GBq/cycle, range: 2.0-7.4 GBq/cycle) and 222 patients were enrolled for high dose (median: 6.7 GBq/cycle, range: 3.7-8.1 GBq/cycle) [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. The incidences of hematotoxicities grade 1–4 were 65.0%, 64.9% and 74.8%; the incidences of grade 4/5 kidney toxicities were 8.4%, 6.5% and 14.0%, and the median survival was 39 (range: 1–158) months, 34 (range: 1–118) months and 29 (range: 1–113) months. The high dose protocol was associated with an increased risk of kidney toxicity (Hazard Ratio: 3.12 (1.13-8.59) vs. intermediate dose, p = 0.03) and a shorter overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 2.50 (1.08-5.79) vs. low dose, p = 0.03).

Conclusions

Increasing [90Y-DOTA]-TOC activities may be associated with increasing hematological toxicities. The dose related hematotoxicity profile of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC could facilitate tailoring [90Y-DOTA]-TOC in patients with preexisting hematotoxicities. The results of the long-term outcome suggest that fractionated [90Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment might allow to reduce renal toxicity and to improve overall survival.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT00978211

Keywords:
Radiopeptide therapy; DOTATOC; DOTA-TOC; Survival; Neuroendocrine tumor