Open Access Research

A Phase I Trial of Pox PSA vaccines (PROSTVAC®-VF) with B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 co-stimulatory molecules (TRICOM™) in Patients with Prostate Cancer

RS DiPaola1*, M Plante2, H Kaufman3, DP Petrylak3, R Israeli4, E Lattime1, K Manson5 and T Schuetz5

Author Affiliations

1 The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

2 University of Vermont, South Burlington, VT, USA

3 Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY, USA

4 Staten Island Urological Research, Staten Island, NY, USA

5 Therion Biologies Corporation, Cambridge, MA, USA

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Journal of Translational Medicine 2006, 4:1  doi:10.1186/1479-5876-4-1

Published: 3 January 2006

Abstract

Purpose

Based on previous studies that demonstrated the safety profile and preliminary clinical activity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) targeted therapeutic vaccines, as well as recent laboratory data supporting the value of the addition of co-stimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3 (designated TRICOM™) to these vaccines, we conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel vaccinia and fowlpox vaccine incorporating the PSA gene sequence and TRICOM.

Methods

In this study, ten patients with androgen independent prostate cancer with or without metastatic disease were enrolled. Patients were treated with 2 × l08 pfu of a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine (PROSTVAC-V) followed by 1 × 109 pfu of the booster recombinant fowlpox virus (PROSTVAC-F) both with gene sequences for PSA and TRICOM. The mean age of patients enrolled in the study was 70 (range 63 to 79). The mean PSA at baseline was 434 (range 9 – 1424).

Results

There were no deaths, and no Grade 3 or 4 adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events, regardless of causality, were injection site reactions and fatigue. One serious adverse event (SAE) occurred that was unrelated to vaccine; this patient developed progressive disease with a new sphenoid metastasis. PSA was measured at week 4 and week 8. Four patients had stable disease (with less than 25% increase in PSA) through the week 8 study period. Anti-PSA antibodies were not induced with therapy: however, anti-vaccinia titers increased in all patients.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that vaccination with PROSTVAC-V and PROSTVAC-F combined with TRICOM is well-tolerated and generated an immune response to vaccinia. Therefore, PROSTVAC-VF/TRICOM represents a feasible therapeutic approach for further phase II and III study in patients with prostate cancer.

Keywords:
PSA; Prostate specific antigen; vaccine; co-stimulatory molecules